Diabetes is a heterogeneous and a multifactor basis syndrome. Actually is a disorder of
glucose metabolic operation due to lack of insulin. This lack can be total, partial or relative.

Diabetes Type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes):

Type 1 (also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM] or juvenile or childhood) diabetes is the most common type found in children and young adults. The condition occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin. The reason for this is unknown, although it is most likely related to the environment

Diabetes Type 2 (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]):

There is another kind of diabetes that is sometimes found in overweight pre-teens and
teenagers, and is also the most common type of diabetes in adults over age 40 years. In
Type 2 diabetes, insulin is still made in normal or increased amounts, but it doesn’t work very well in helping the body use sugar (insulin resistance). This type occurs in all ethnic groups,but is more frequent in people of Hispanic, Native-American, Asian and African-American heritages. It is often referred to as a “disease of lifestyles”.
In Greece, according to Hellenic Diabetes Association, the frequency of diabetesappearance is 9,7 persons/ 100.000/ per year for Type 1 and 8% of general population for Type 2. People who develop Type 1 diabetes are insulin dependent for life.They will not convert to Type 2 diabetes as they grow older. Likewise, people with Type 2 diabetes do not convert to type 1, though they could be insulin-dependent eventually.

Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitusGDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels during pregnancy (especially during their third trimester). Gestational diabetes is caused when insulin receptors do not function properly. This is likely due to pregnancy-related factors such as the presence of human placental lactogen that interferes with susceptible insulin receptors. This in turn causes inappropriately elevated blood sugar levels.
Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucose in blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.
As with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy in general, babies born to mothers with untreated gestational diabetes are typically at increased risk of problems such as being large for gestational age (which may lead to delivery complications), low blood sugar, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also cause seizures or stillbirth. Gestational diabetes is a treatable condition and women who have adequate control of glucose levels can effectively decrease these risks. The food plan is often the first recommended target for strategic management of GDM.
Women with unmanaged gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (or, very rarely, latent autoimmune diabetes or Type 1) after pregnancy, as well as having a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia and Caesarean section; their offspring are prone to developing childhood obesity, with type 2 diabetes later in life. Most women are able to manage their blood glucose levels with a modified diet and the introduction of moderate exercise, but some require antidiabetic drugs, including insulin.

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